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Floriculture



Development of Floriculture :-




Himachal Pradesh is located in North Western part of India between latitude 300 22' 40? N to 330 12' 20? N and longitude 750 45' 55? E to 790 04' 20? N. In Himachal Pradesh, the per capita cultivated land is only 0.12 hectares while per capita irrigated land is a meager 0.02 hectares. This situation necessitates a cropping pattern that would ensure highest income per unit area/ labour/ investment. Commercial floriculture perfectly caters to this necessity. The agro-climatic conditions prevailing in the State of Himachal Pradesh offer excellent opportunities for the development of floriculture both to serve the internal off-season market and also for exports, an avenue yet to be tapped. A large variety of floriculture products, viz., cut flowers, bulbs, seeds, live plants, etc. can be produced as economic cash crops. Although flowers from different agro climatic zones of the State can be made available all through the year for domestic market, export quality flower produce can be ensured only by cultivation under controlled environment conditions of greenhouses.

DISTRICT WISE AREA UNDER FLOWER CROPS IN HIMACHAL PRADESH AS ON 2000 - 2013


COMMERCIAL FLORICULTURE IN HIMACHAL PRADESH

Agro Climatic Zones for Floriculture

Zone descriptionElevation range(Meters msl) Rainfall (cms) Suitable Flower Crops
Low Hill and Valley Areas near the plains 350 – 900 60 - 100 Gladiolus, Carnation Lilium, Marigold, Chrysanthemum, Rose
Mid Hills(Sub Temperate)900 – 1500 90 – 100Carnation, Gladiolus, Lilium, Marigold, Chrysanthemum, Alstroemeria, Rose
High Hills and Valleys in the interiors(Temperate) 1500 – 275090 - 100 Gladiolus, Carnation Lilium, Marigold, Chrysanthemum
Cold and Dry Zone(Dry Temperate) 2750 – 365024 - 40 Seed/ Corm/ Bulb production

COMMERCIAL FLORICULTURE

gladiolus

Marigold

Carnation

Chrysanthemum

Rose

Lilium

  • Asiatic
  • Oriental

POTENTIAL FLORICULTURE


Alstroemeria Limonium Zantedeschia Iris
Strelitzia Tulips Gerberas Orchids

ADVANTAGES OF FLORICULTURE :-

  • The Agro climatic conditions prevailing in the State of Himachal Pradesh offer excellent opportunities for the development of floriculture both to serve the internal off-season market and also exports.
  • A large variety of floriculture products, viz., cut flowers, bulbs, seeds, live plants, etc. can be produced.
  • The natural agro climatic conditions offer ideal production environment for flowers and the planting material i.e., expensive heating and cooling systems in the greenhouses are not required
  • Power required for running the greenhouses is charged at domestic rates in the State.
  • Flowers from different agro climatic zones of the State can be made available from open field cultivation all through the year for domestic market, however, export quality flower produce can be ensured only by cultivation under controlled environmental conditions of greenhouses.

PLANTING AND HARVESTING SEASONS - OPEN FIELD CONDITIONS

Gladiolus

Agro Climatic ZonesPlanting Time Flowering Time
Low HillsJul. - Aug. Sep. - Oct.Nov. - March
Mid Hills Feb. - March MayMay - Oct.
High HillsApril - MayJuly - Nov.

Marigold

Agro Climatic ZonesPlanting Time Flowering Time
Low HillsSep. - Oct.March – April
Mid HillsJan. - Feb.Jun. - Jul.
High HillsMay - JuneOct. - mid Dec.

Carnation

Agro Climatic ZonesPlanting Time Flowering Time
Low HillsSep. - Nov.Feb. – March
Mid HillsJan. - Feb.April – June
High HillsMarch - AprilJuly - Oct.

Oriental & Asiatic Lilium

Agro Climatic ZonesPlanting Time Flowering Time
Low Hills Dec. –March March – June
Mid HillsMarch - Apr.June – July
High HillsApr. - MayJuly - Aug.

SERVICES PROVIDED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE

INFRASTRUCTURAL SUPPORT

Floriculture Nurseries:

The Department of Horticulture has established seven Floriculture Nurseries in various Districts, viz., Navbahar and Chhrabra in Shimla District, Mahog Bag and Parwanoo in Solan District, Bajaura in Kullu District and Dharamshala and Bhatoon in Kangra District.

Model Floriculture Centre:

The “Model Floriculture Centre” has been established at Mahog Bag (Chail), District Solan and a Tissue Culture Laboratory is being set up for the propagation of planting material of commercially important floriculture crops. The present infrastructure at the “Model Floriculture Centre” consists of 1706.5 sq. m of Greenhouse area, one Handling Unit for post harvest handling of flowers and 3 Nos. of Cool Chambers for forcing and storage of planting material. The building, which shall house the Tissue Culture Laboratory, Training Hall and other infrastructure of the Centre, has been constructed at an estimated cost of Rs. 94.22 lakhs and taken over by the Department of Horticulture in July 2004.

Post-harvest Infrastructure

Collection, Grading & Packing House and cool chamber facilities have been established by the District Rural Development Agency for post-harvest management of floriculture produce in the districts of Bilaspur, Mandi and Kangra.

Research & Development:

The following organizations provide the necessary R&D support in the field of floriculture: -

  1. Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Solan. This University has a separate Department of Floriculture & Landscaping as its head quarters at Nauni. The location specific research work is being carried out at the regional Research stations of the university located in various Agro climatic Zones of the State.
  2. Institute of Himalayan Bio-resource Technology, Palampur, District Kangra
  3. ICAR Research Station at Katrain District Kullu H.P.
  4. National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Phagli, Shimla, H.P.

Technical Assistance:

  • Training in Floriculture

  • Organization of Study Tours

  • Advisory Service:

    Free technical advice is made available to the entrepreneurs and practicing floriculturists in pre and post-harvest technologies of floriculture crops.
  • Literature for Floriculture:

    Literature handouts containing technical information pertaining to cultivation of floriculture crops are supplied free of cost.
  • Organization of Flower Shows:

    The Department provides assistance for the organization of flower shows to create awareness on the usage of floriculture produce – both indoors and outdoors.
  • Formation of Flower Growers Co-operative Societies:

    The Department provides assistance to the flower growers for the formation of flower growers co-operative Societies.
  • Assistance from other Organizations:

    The Department assists the flower grower co-operatives and NGOs to obtain assistance for the establishment of post-harvest management facilities available from organizations like National Horticulture Board, APEDA and NABARD.

RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT

  • Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Solan. This University has a separate Department of Floriculture & Landscaping at its head quarters at Nauni. The location specific research work is being carried out at the Regional Research Stations of the University located in various Agro climatic Zones of the State.
  • Institute of Himalayan Bio-resource Technology, Palampur, District Kangra.
  • ICAR Research Station at Katrain District Kullu H.P.
  • National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Phagli, Shimla, H.P.

STEPS INITIATED TO PROMOTE FLORICULTURE :-

  • .Creating more public awareness regarding use of floriculture produce through media and other agencies as well as more exposure of floriculture products during consumer exhibitions.
  • .Retailing of flower produce through super markets in addition to Florist shops to encourage flower consumption especially in metropolitan cities.
  • .Organizing post harvest infrastructure for marketing needs at the domestic terminal markets, particularly the Delhi market.
  • .Promotion of interaction between growers and scientific Institutions for effective lab to land technology transfer.

marigold

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